In the past few years, nanotechnology has become a prime area for biomedical research. Specifically, cerium oxide nanoparticles consist of a cerium core surrounded by an oxygen lattice. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeONPs) have become really popular lately due to their amazing catalytic activities which is because of the fast mutation of oxidation state between Ce4+ and Ce3+. A cerium atom has the ability to adjust drastically its electronic configuration to fit the immediate environment. When it is combined with oxygen in a nanoparticle formulation, cerium oxide adopts a fluorite crystalline structure that appears as a fascinating material. It has several industrial applications; the mimetic properties produce various biological effects. CeONP has a great scope in biological fields like bioanalysis, biomedicine, drug delivery, and bio scaffolding.
CONPs have the ability to sensitize cancer cells while protecting the surrounding tissues. CONP treatment prevents macular degeneration and the formation of neovascular lesions in the retina. Hence, they have great potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer, as well as other diseases.
Properties Of Cerium Oxide Nanopowder
Some of the properties of cerium oxide powder are mentioned below:
In the ultraviolet absorption process, the outer electrons of molecules absorb photons and undertake transitions to higher energy levels. So, the obtained optical absorption spectrum can be used to calculate the energy band gap of the CeO2 material. UV-visible spectrum of the CeO2 nanoparticles shows a distinctive absorption band at 369 nm.
The surface mechanical properties (hardness and scratch resistance) are improved by cerium oxide nanoparticles. The bulk features of the organic host matrix are also strongly modified in the presence of cerium oxide nanoparticles: tensile strength, elongation-at-break or yield stress are considerably enriched.
In order to characterize the mechanical properties of the modified coating, a free film is formed through the deposition of a coating layer onto a non-sticky surface (glass). The yield stress, tensile strength and elongation are recorded at the breaking point.
Synthesis Of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles
Methods like hydrothermal, solvothermal, aqueous precipitation, reversed micelles thermal decomposition, etc. are used for the synthesis of CeONP. After the synthesis, the CeONP can be kept bare or can be wrapped with a protective coating of hydrophilic or hydrophobic. Biocompatible CeONP has been systematically synthesized in pure water or with the protection of polyethylene glycol, polyacrylic acid, glucose and so on.
These methods affect their catalytic properties and determine the size, surface, solubility, charge, morphology, etc. one of the biggest advantage of using nanomaterials is that their properties can be controlled and altered in a predictable manner as per their specific applications.
Applications Of Cerium Oxide Powder
Cerium oxide is a brilliant semiconducting material with an extensive band gap that is acquainted for its catalytic properties. Cerium, one of the elements in the lanthanide series displays both oxidation states +3 and +4 and has the ability to switch over these oxidation states very effortlessly. Due to this amazing property of cerium oxide, it is used in numerous applications such as catalytic converters, solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen buffers. Nowadays, they are extensively studied due to their countless applications, some of them are mentioned below:
These cerium nanoparticles are used as UV absorbents and filters. In electrochemical biosensors, the cerium oxide nanoparticles are used as Nano interface to improve the basic features of the sensors such as response time, sensitivity, selectivity, linear response. In these sensors the cerium oxide powder is used as the interface between the electrode and the biological element. The presence of these nanoceria in these sensors increases the electron transfer rate amongst the electrode and the recognition element. Hence, the basic characteristics of the sensors are improved.
They have an exceptional use in the fields of biology and biomedical. The Reactive Oxygen Species is responsible for a number of diseases. The definite redox properties of the cerium oxide nanoparticles make it interrelate with a huge number of ROS and diminish their injurious effects.
The introduction of the cerium oxide nanoparticles into the in-vitro cell culture increases the lifespan of the cells and reduces the cell damage caused by H2O2.
The studies in the recent years have shown the effective role of cerium oxide nanoparticles in the treatment of spinal cord damage and some diseases related to the central nervous system due to oxidative stress. The presence of the cerium nanoparticles augments the lifespan of the neurons in the spinal cord and in the central nervous system.
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